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Introduction to Robotics. Analysis, Systems,. Applications. Saeed B. Niku. Mechanical Engineering Department. California Polytechnic State University. San Luis. Analysis, systems, Applications. Saeed B. Niku Introduction. Fig. (a) A on a truck. Reprinted with permission from Fanuc Robotics, North America, Inc. Introduction; History of robotics; Definitions and classifications; Typical robots Saeed B. Niku, Introduction to Robotics - Analysis, Systems, Applications.
The hun1an arm has three joint clusters: the shoulder, the elbovv, and the wrist.
Introduction to Robotics: Analysis, Systems, Applications
The shoulder has 3 degrees of freedo1n, since the upper aim hun1erus can rotate in the sagittal plane, which is parallel to the 1nid-plane of the body; the coronal plane a plane fron1 shoulder to shoulder ; and about the l1uerus please verify this by rotating your arm about the three different axes. The elbo, has just 1 degree of freedo; it can only flex and extend about the elbovv joint.
The wrist also has 3 degrees of fi:eedon1. It can abduct and adduct, flex and extend, and, since the radius bone can roll over the ulna, it can rotate longitudinally pronate and supinate. Consequently, the hun1an arn1 has a total of7 degrees of:fi:eedon1, even if the ranges of some moven1ents are sn1all. Since a 7-DOF syste1n does not have a unique solution, how do you think we can use our arn1s? Please note that the end effector of the robot is never considered as one of the degrees of freedon1.
All robots have this additional capability, wluch 1uay appear to be si1nilar to a degree of freedon1. However, none of the moven1ents in the end effector are counted tovvard the robot's degrees of fieedon1.
There are cases where a joint may have the ability to move, but its moven1ent is not fully controlled. For exan1ple, consider a linear joint actuated by a pneun1atic cylinder, vvhere the arm is fully extended or fully retracted, but no controlled position can be achieved between the two extremes.
In this case, the convention is to assign only a -degree of fi-eedo1n to the joint. This rueans that the joint can only be at specified locations within its lin1jts ofn1oven1ent. Another possibility for a degree of fi.
For example, suppose a joint is made to be only at 0, 30, 60, and 90 degrees.
Then, as before, the joint is linuted to only a fevv possibilities, and therefore, has a partial degree of freedon1. Many industrial robots possess fewer than 6 degrees of fieedo1n. Robots ,vith 3. So long as there is no need for the additional degrees of freedon1, these robots perform very well.
For exan1-ple, suppose you intend to insert electronic con1ponents into a circuit board. The circuit board is always laid flat on a knovvn ,vork surface, and consequently, its height z value relative to the base of the robot is known. Therefore, tl1ere is only a need for 2 degrees of freedom along the x - and y- axes to specify any location on the board for insertion.
In that case, there is a need for 1 degree of freedom to rotate about the vertical axis z in order to orientate the con1ponent above the surface. Since there is also need for a -degree of freedo1n to fuJly extend the end effector to insert the part or to fuUy retract it to lift the robot before 1noving, only 3.
Insertion robots are very con and are extensively used in electronic industry. Their advantage is that J. JO Robot Coordinates 11 they are sin1ple to progran1, less expensive, sn1aller, and faster.
Their disadvantage is that, although they 1nay be progra1nn1ed to insert components on any size board in any direction, they cannot perfor1n other jobs. They are linuted to vvhat 3. Spherical joints are con11non in any systen1s but they possess n1uJtiple degrees of freedon1, and therefore, are difficult to control. Consequently, they are not con1n1on in 4 robotics except in research. Most robots have either a linear prismatic joint or a rotary revolute joint.
They are either hydraulic or pneun-iatic cylinders or lii1ear electric actuators. These joints are used in gantry, cylindrical, or spherical robot variations. R evolute joints are rotary, and although hydraulic and pneu1r1atic rotary joints are conu11on, 1nost rotary joints are electrically driven, either by stepper motors or, ore comn1only, by servo1notors.
Pris1natic joints are denoted by P , revolute joints are denoted by R, and spherical joints are denoted by S. Funda1nentals Figure 1.
Printed ,,vith p eissio n fron1 Adept T echnology , fnc. For exa1nple, a robot with three pris1natic a11d three revolute joi11ts is sp ecified by 3P3R. Representation of a pure rotation about an axis 40 2. Representation of combined transformations 43 2. Transformations relative to the rotating 46 Inverse of Transformation Matrices 48 2. Forward and Inverse Kinematics of Robots 53 2. Forward and Inverse Kinematic Equations for Position 54 2.
Forward and Inverse Kinematic Equations for Orientation 59 2. Inverse Kinematic Programming of Robots 2. Degeneracy and Dexterity 82 2.
Design Project 1: A three-degree-of-freedom Robot 2. Differential Translations 3. Differential Rotations 3. Differential Rotation about a general axis k 3. Differential Transformations of a Frame 3. Inverse Jacobian 3. Design Project 3. Kinetic Energy 4. Potential Energy 4. The Lagrangian 4. Introduction 5. Path vs.
Degeneracy and Dexterity 82 2. Introduction 29 2. Introduction Lagrangian Mechanics: Design Project 3.
The Lagrangian 4. Contents 3 Differential Motions and Velocities 3. Differential Rotation about a general axis k 3. Differential Rotations 3. Inverse Jacobian 3.
Kinetic Energy 4. Potential Energy 4. Differential Translations 3. Differential Transformations of a Frame 3. Basics of Trajectory Planning 5. Path vs. Design Project 5.
Comparison of Actuating Systems 6. Other Trajectories 5.
Pneumatic Devices 6. Compliance 6. Joint-Space vs.
Stiffness vs. Electric Motors 6. Characteristics of Actuating Systems 6. Trajectory 5. Use of Reduction Gears 6. Cartesian-Space Trajectories 5.
Frequently bought together
Summary References 6 Actuators 5. Hydraulic Devices 6. Cartesian-Space Descriptions 5. Power-to-Weight Ratio. Operating Pressure 6. Introduction 5. Contents References Problems 5 Trajectory Planning 5. Joint-Space Trajectory Planning 5. Introduction 6. Continuous Trajectory Recording Problems 6.
Stepper Motors 6. Microswitches 7. Servomotors 6. Introduction Sensor Characteristics Position Sensors 7. Summary References Problems 7 Sensors 7. Encoders 7. Light and Infrared Sensors 7. Torque Sensors 7. Force Sensing resistor 7. Design Project 1 6. Force and Pressure Sensors 7.
Differentiation ofposition signal Acceleration Sensors 7. Resolvers 7. Potentiometers 7.
Introduction to Robotics Analysis, Systems, Applications
Pulse Width Modulation. Design Project 2 6.
Speed Reduction 6. Contents 6. Touch and Tactile Sensors Piezoelectric 7. Strain gauges 1. Tachometers 7.
Microprocessor Control of Electric Motors 6. Edges 8. Vision Systems 7. Spatial Domain Operations: Convolution Mask 8. Image Processing versus Image Analysis 8. Ultrasonic Range Finders 7. Image-Processing Techniques Range-finders 7.
Ultrasonic Proximity Sensors 7.
Sniff Sensors 7.Contact your Rep for all inquiries. Showing the evolution of analogue control loop signalling from the pneumatic to the electronic eras.
Forward and Inverse Kinematic Equations for Position 54 2. Introduction to Robotics Mechanics and Control 3rd Edition. Design Project 7. Force and Pressure Sensors 7. Undetected country. A robot that has 6 degrees offreedorn can be requested to place objects at any desired location and orientation.
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