sought to understand the timeless wisdom and eerie divinations of the I Ching, translated, the Book of. Changes. Using the simple tools of three coins, one can. Beginning in the Shang Dynasty (16thth century B.C.), or even further back, China's Book of Changes, or Yi Jing (often I Ching), began a process of gradual. PDF | On Jan 1, , Richard Smith and others published The Book of Changes World: The Yijing (I-Ching, or Classic of Changes) and Its Evolution in China.
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THE YI JING, OR “BOOK OF CHANGES”. A VERY BRIEF OVERVIEW. There is no doubt that the Yi jing (“Classic of Changes,” sometimes known as the Zhou yi. Divisions of the Book of Changes. (Yijing 易經). Zhouyi (周易) Basic Text (Jing 經） . 64 Hexagrams (Liushisi gua 六十四卦). Hexagram Names (Gua ming 卦名). Undoubtly the I Ching is one of the most important books in world literature. It contains .. Be attentive also for changes that signal a time to retreat. In the realm .
The head is the beginning.
If the beginning is not right, there is no hope of a right ending. If we have missed the right moment for union and go on hesitating to give complete and full devotion, we shall regret the error when it is too late.
A weak line in the fourth place, that of the minister, holds the five strong lines in check. In the Image it is the wind blowing across the sky. The wind restrains the clouds, the rising breath of the Creative, and makes them grow dense, but as yet is not strong enough to turn them to rain. The hexagram presents a configuration of circumstances in which a strong element is temporarily held in leash by a weak element. It is only through gentleness that this can have a successful outcome.
Dense clouds, no rain from our western region. The moment for action on a large scale had not yet arrived. Hence the image of many clouds, promising moisture and blessing to the land, although as yet no rain falls. The situation is not unfavorable; there is a prospect of ultimate success, but there are still obstacles in the way, and we can merely take preparatory measures. Only through the small means of friendly persuasion can we exert any influence. The time has not yet come for sweeping measures.
However, we may be able, to a limited extent, to act as a restraining and subduing influence. To carry out our purpose we need firm determination within and gentleness and adaptability in external relations. Thus the superior man Refines the outward aspect of his nature.
The wind can indeed drive the clouds together in the sky; yet, being nothing but air, without solid body, it does not produce great or lasting effects.
So also an individual, in times when he can produce no great effect in the outer world, can do nothing except refine the expression of his nature in small ways. How could there be blame in this? It lies in the nature of a strong man to press forward. In so doing he encounters obstructions.
Therefore he returns to the way suited to his situation, where he is free to advance or to retreat. In the nature of things this will bring good fortune, for it is wise and reasonable not to try to obtain anything by force. Nine in the second place means: He allows himself to be drawn into returning. One would like to press forward, but before going farther one sees from the example of others like oneself that this way is blocked. In such a case, if the effort to push forward is not in harmony with the time, a reasonable and resolute man will not expose himself to a personal rebuff, but will retreat with others of like mind.
This brings good fortune, because he does not needlessly jeopardize himself. Nine in the third place means: The spokes burst out of the wagon wheels. Man and wife roll their eyes. Here an attempt is made to press forward forcibly, in the consciousness that the obstructing power is slight. But since, under the circumstances, power actually lies with the weak, this sudden offensive is doomed to failure. External conditions hinder the advance, just as loss of the wheel spokes stops the progress of a wagon.
We do not yet heed this hint form fate, hence there are annoying arguments like those of a married couple. Naturally this is not a favorable state of thing, for though the situation may enable the weaker side to hold its ground, the difficulties are too numerous to permit of a happy result.
In consequence even the strong man cannot so use his power as to exert the right influence on those around him. He experiences a rebuff where he expected an easy victory, and he thus compromises his dignity. Six in the fourth place means: If you are sincere, blood vanishes and fear gives way. If one is in the difficult and responsible position of counselor to a powerful man, on should restrain him in such a way that the threat of actual bloodshed may arise.
Nonetheless, the power of disinterested truth is greater than all theses obstacles. It carries such weight that the end is achieved, and all danger of bloodshed and all fear disappear. Nine in the fifth place means: If you are sincere and loyally attached, You are rich in your neighbor.
Loyalty leads to firm ties because it means that each partner complements the other. In the weaker person loyalty consists in devotion, in the stronger it consists in trustworthiness.
This relation of mutual reinforcement leads to a true wealth that is all the more apparent because it is not selfishly hoarded but is shared with friends. Pleasure shared is pleasure doubled. Nine at the top means: The rain comes, there is rest. This is due to the lasting effect of character. Perseverance brings the woman into danger. The moon is nearly full. If the superior man persists, Misfortune comes.
Success is at hand. The wind has driven up the rain.
A fixed standpoint has been reach. This has come about through the cumulation of small effects produced by reverence for a superior character. But a success thus secured bit by bit calls for great caution. It would be a dangerous illusion for anyone to think he could presume upon it.
The female principle, the weak element that has won the victory, should never persist in vaunting it--that would lead to danger.
The dark power in the moon is strongest when the moon is almost full. We must learn to approach these ancient methods of integration with an appreciation for what they are: When we rediscover the usefulness of a natural life. We will also learn that it is dangerous to violate our own nature.
You will find these useful principles underlying all of the material that follows. The development of human life. In nature. A perfect circle: A perfectly straight line is non-existent in nature. They cannot accept the fact that reality is not this way.
It is a natural line. This is reality. A naturally straight line: It is This line was drawn without the help of a ruler. They expect the environment to take responsibility for them.
A perfectly straight line: This line was drawn with the help of a ruler. Any stressful situation. Although a straight line with curves is natural.
When the human mind tries to impose the concept of imaginary perfection upon nature. When a life is lived naturally. A precisely straight baseline does not exist in natural life L Similarly The gently curved line is the real baseline..
WlGlJRE The baseline of a natural life has rhythmical curves: When a line rises sharply.. A balanced fundamental path is the baseline of a 8. Lengthening or Shortening the Span of a Human Life 1. A natural. Working to decrease the sharp angles of extremes wastes time. The ancient integral ones observed that when nature creates trouble it can usually be escaped.
Internal pressure is expressed through impulsiveness. A life under internal or external tension or pressure becomes denatured: All extremes create other extremes.
It can be said that when anything stands forth too positively. The best thing to do is not to create sharp comers in life by exaggerating emotional. Tensions and pressures may come from natural causes. A natural life span is long. Which do you prefer? In what ways could you lengthen it?
To lessen the intensity of the curves actually lengthens the span of the line. The length of this line is actually the same as the one above in Figure As you can see. If the curves are sharpened. Below is a comparison of a line with sharp curves and a line of the same length with natural curves: Compromising adjustments to an unhealthy social or political system.
Internal and external pressures make a person deviate from the baseline of a natural good life. Personal growth comes from incessant self-cultivation by which one can remove the emotional elements of love and hate. They often represent crises in the development of an integral. As seen in the illustrations above. The teachings of Lao Tzu suggest that the Integral Way is to decrease extremes through personal cultivation.
We should restrain our preference for any particular time or space and inwardly maintain naturalness so that we do not sharpen the curves of life. It also leads one to know which external influences impede correct judgment and must be removed.
This also means that when curves are present.
The key uideline. An individual should take responsibility for his or her own growth. The overflow of such things often causes one to become unbalanced and extreme. This means not artificially bringing a curve to its extreme by emotional or psychological exaggeration. The Two Forces 1.
The two categories of yin and yang can be expressed as two different lines. The broken or separated line represents yin. Yin and yang expressed by a slope: Yin and yang expressed by a drcle: Expressed by a circle: Within yin and yang there must be a balancing force. Even in the view of modem physics. InEE the center is the first line. In the combined energy formation of two different trigrams. There is an organization within all things. For example: Finding the Balancing Force 1.
Nothing exists in isolation. In most hexagrams. The hexagram itself is poorly formed. The Eight Natural Forces The eight phases of universal energy are exemplified by the following images which connote the basic energy formations of nature and are named accordingly: Not only is change affected by the quantity of yin and yang. The Complete Cycle of the Eight Phases of Yin and yang The formation of a new kind of energy varies according to the composition of yin and yang.
In the following chart. These combinations form the basic sixty-four hexagrams.. The four phases of cyclic movement are what are most often noticed. The central force exists. This holding force. The substance or enUty of the receptive field activates the rotation of the four phases. Yang metal and yin metal as the fntroverting phase or force. Yangearthandyinearthas the allaying of the extremes of the other phases or forces: Yang fire and yin fire as the expanding phase or force at the peak of the cycle.
It acts as a lubricant between the other conflicting forces and is thus a moderating force in the natural order. The natural cycle of energies starts with generatior or Wood. This can be seen in the Post-Heaven arrangemen of the eight natural forces Figure b.
R Chen P Chui Wei. Yang earth of the force of earth. Yin fire and yang fire of the force of earth.?
Yang metal and yin metal of the force of earth. Yin earth of the force of earth. Yang wood and yin wood of the force of earth. The Five Elemntanj Phases of Cyclic Movement 21 The dotted lines in both the linear and circular representations separate the four major phases.
The I Ching or Book of Changes
Summer to Fire. The Roman numerals are in the order of the natural cycle that is expressed by the four seasons: Spring corresponding to Wood. The cycle begins with IV. Autumn to Metal. For instance. Yin and yang wood have a yang earth.
General education helps people become well-versed in their thinking. When we follow a gradual curve. Even in the most minute particle of the universe there is the integration of yin and yang. As a result. The universe comes into existence with the integration of both of these forces: When one faces a new situation.
Tension or severe emotions do not help anything. The appropriate psychological response to an extreme curve should be one of balance. They are a way of trying to deny that a curve or change exists. When the curve is sharp or extreme. Phases and Forces All movement. Dealing with Cycles. Eachcurveinthelineofanindividual life. This kind of thinking creates obstacles to an accurate. Using this key. The minds of ancient sages may not have been any better than those of modem intellectuals.
Everything is always. Thinking becomes an escape for intellectually developed people whose lives would be smoother if they worked harder at developing and using their intuition. In dealing with movement or change.
The Integral Way is a way of thoroughly understanding the universe. Attachment to what one likes is a psychological defect and is unreal. Cyclic movement is expressed in individual emotional life. It is the best way of predicting human fortune. The present. They work hard at searching for an explanation or hidden meaning rather than having immediate contact with reality. You have only to open your eyes to see the bountiful evidence and examples of how to effectively deal with movement and change.
When a mind is detached from the past and also remains unattached to any details of the present. Intellectuals and scholars may be very astute thinkers.
Its force connotes calmness. Zero is the center of the universe. It symbolizes the wholeness and purity of nature as one life. Stage II This figure and yang- demonstrates the division into two: Chapter 5 AN A. It can also be considered the original impetus of the universe. In the Tao Teh Chfng. Strong Yang or Pure Yang This is the dominating yang force. This means the full yin sphere.
Strong Yin or Pure Yin When strong yang energy over extends itself.
This occurs when yang energy seeks self-adjustment in response to opposition or resistance. It is a way of self-accomplishing. This means the full yang sphere. T h e different phases of this energy are expressed in the self-generating process of Ufe. It is constructive. It is the main energy of nature. Lesser yin the small black circle grows in the sphere oJ strong yang.
Thus yin is the weak stage of yang energy which makes an alternating shift in order to continue generating itself. Wood or vegetation. The Strong Force. Roe Dewfoptng Steps Expressed Numerics 27 Young Yin or Lesser Yin This energy phase is the transition created by the movement of yang energy before it grows from weak to strong.
The Adoption of the New Symbolic Meaning Yin energy is produced by the movement of yang energy in an opposing and resisting manner in order to assist the effort of the yang. Its function is to harmonize and hold the four phases together. The two line system of yang. Doubling the trigrams forms the eight symbols of the Ba Gua octahedron. Soil or earth. The Development of the Line System: When the trigrams are paired with different trigrams. The six stages. Other than being used to symbolize the eight natural energies of E sky.
In this progression. For example.
From this position of lesser yang. These trigrams express the increase of a negative influence. In natural developed medicine. It also means that the positive yang energy. Regression and progression are illustrated in Figures 43 and II and:.
In other words. A proceeding progression moves from deep trouble to a slight problem. They are not used as descriptive stages in such a situation because Eis used to govern E to 31 to 3e which expresses fire. This six stage process is used in natural medicine to describe various physical situations. This is yang energy in a process of decreasing. Studying this material can help tram the mind. It expresses the great vftabty of nature and the vital force contained in each individual life.
E is a natural impetus that has moved too Ngh. Following that. IThe Meaning of the Eight Symbols by Trigrams e is the full natural impetus of nature as an entirety. It is a foundation like the Earth.
It is lfke I. Thunder or life itself. The Five Element System is derived from the eight manifestations of natural energy that are described below. Ez is natural energy pushing forward. An illustration of the five phases can be seen in Figures 3 1 and 5 1. E is the natural impetus to push upward. It moves from a. The ancient developed ones categorized Wind as the airy energy in Wood. It is used in the process of burning Wood and is thus a necessary condition of Fire.
The words Heaven. The ancient developed ones considered stars to be condensed natural energy. The Symbolic Trigrams for the Five Elements Thus the tri-line symbols of the five element energies become: Ie symbolizing Waler e symbolizing Fire me symbolizing Wood.
They are metaphorical rather than literal. It is arranged in the Ba Gua Octahedron between Wood and Fire because it cannot be represented by solid matter. Condensation is symbolized by the image of Metal.. It is like Wind. It consumes and destroys. Another example is cooking. It is not abrupt or sudden. Another example is the breath of a calm person. It is. It is cold. Another example is an internal combustion engine.
It is exemplified by small growing plants in the spring. It is a type of burning om. It is a gathering or dispersing type of movement. It is like the root and sprout of a tree or any plant pushing up to break through the soil which covers it. It is cool and liquid.
An example of this is the motion of ram water collecting in a beaver dam. It can be gentle and slow. It is expansive and creative. An example of Fire energy. Its motion is inward. Another example is untamed anger: It is an airy type of reaction. Another example is the expansive growth of a young. It consumes and creates something new. It js also beautifying. Another example is a crowd slowly filling a concert hall or football stadium.
For further information regarding the line system. Strong major or old yin. An example of Metal energy is an overcast day in winter. Another example is the most responsible. It is unmoving. Another example is the physical body. An example in the human realm is depression. Another example is the solidifying of water into ice. Lesser minor or young yang. The above illustrations. It is firm without being rigid.
Lesser minor or young yin. It is reliable and dependable. An example of Earth energy is the foundation of a house. Any way the numbers are summed up. Now children use it as a game. This nine house system has been developed for use in divination and spiritual practice. Hu To. In this figure. The numerical combinations can also be expressed as shown in Figure Five implies establishment. The numbers six through nine are the repetition of the numbers one through five in a declining phase.
Ten is a number with the implication of stopping or decreasing the full growth of the yin and yang phases. All numbers contain zero and one.
The establishing factor is the number one. One to five can be symbolized by the five natural phenomena: Water 2. Fire F 3. Metal 5. In the square in the above figure. The horizontal lines express the relation of generating. Five is the neutralizing force which coheres the other Great Four, thus it is zero. This is the central teaching in the I Ching. Left to right clockwise movement is the generating order.
Right to left counterclockwise movement is the revolutionary order.
The Tai Chi Symbol. These two complementary spheres that edst together represent the relativity of all existence, both in the physical and the conceptual universe. Located within each sphere is a small circle. Each Tai Chi stands complete and independent while at the same time being one small part of the larger whole.
This is illustrated in Figure 54 below. This precept can also be applied to the model of an individual human life. The universe is a unified existence like an individual human being, and an individual human life is a unified existence, just like the universe. Yang is presents the integration of yin and yang. Yin, its opposite, is receptive. In general, yang tends to rise, progress and increase, representing the Yin tends to creative, active movement of nature.
In a daily cycle, yang represents the light of daytime and yin represents the darkness of night. The dark yin is exhausted and gives way to the growing yang. The upper half represents the afternoon as yang energy decreases and gives way to the growing yin toward midnight.
Around the fifteenth day of a Chinese calendar, the hypothetical vertical middle line is Then the reached and the moon is at its fullest. The right side presents the darkness of the night. In presenting the yearly solar cycle, the left light side represents the seasons of Spring and Summer and the right dark represents the seasons of Fall and Winter.
In presenting a human life cycle, the lower left expresses the first half while the upper left expresses the second half. The right side represents a person before birth and after death. This orientation has the same meaning and purposes as the others, the only difllerence being t; show the highest point of the cycle in the middle of the top curve. This is noon in a daily cycle, the full moon in a lunar cycle, the high point between Spring and Summer in a yearly cycle and middle age in a human life.
Q This symbol more dramatically expresses the natural energy flow in its process of acceleration. The vivid movement, the active flow, and the principle that growth and decline are proportIonally related are all pictured in this diagram. There is another important principle expressed in the Tai Chi Tu which says: When yang reaches its fullest, yin grows, and when yin is at its fullest, yang 4.
Chapter 6 starts on its way. All cycles follow this principle without exception. The yang light sphere represents life -. The yin dark sphere represents uncertain death - -. The basic structure of the universe, according to the Taoist view, consists of three spheres: Heaven, or the spiritual realm, symbolized as. Earth, or the material realm, symbolized as 0. Mankind, containing all lives, symbolized as 0. In the spiritual science of the natural spiritual path, Q represents a general human life before achievement.
To be natural is to lengthen the yang or subtle cycle. To be supernatural is to eliminate the yin or gross sphere and become purely subtle. It is obvious that life belongs to yang and subtleness, while death belongs to yin and grossness. One has access to the way of cultivation through all of my books. Four Divisions. Instead, the endurance of energy decides the length of time. It does not actually represent the living situation of the person.
The I Ching or Book of Changes - Fu His
Therefore, in order to maintain life, subtle energy must be cultivated. There is no other way. This is the fundamental viewpoint of ancient naturally developed ones. Total understanding and trust are required for development and achievement.
Otherwise, my books would be no different than ordinary books. From the understanding of the above, an individual should take responsibility for his life and apply the following virtuous practices:.
Chapter 6 self-adjustment self-communion self-disciplme self-government self-knowledge self-surrender self-cultivation self-control self-examination self-improvement self-regulation. As understood by the ancient spiritually developed ones, to consistently practice these virtuous qualities with sincerity is to grasp the meaning of the universe and of human life.
In the natural spiritual way of cultivation. Yang energy gives vitalizing support to human acttvity. All important spiritual energy cultivation occurs during the yang part of the cycle. According to the energy differences, yang energy becomes too strong in the head area at the time close to noon. Although this is not a good time for cultivating, it is still okay for handling other daily affairs.
The best time for self-cultivation is in the early morning when yang energy is not yet too strong. In the first part of the yin sphere, yin energy is stAl shallow and usable for some work.
The latter part of the yin sphere, when the energy becomes deeper, is time for rest and not for engaging in work. During the upper chord phases, one feels tonifled, and during the lower chord sedated. The correct time for self-cultivation is during all phases of the moon, but especially during the full lower chord moon.
For reasons of protecting a gentle young energy sprout, emotional excitement or outbursts must be avoided during the new moon. Further Applications of Figure 60 1. During the full moon the fifteenth or sixteenth day of the lunar cycle the tide rises. The liquid energy of the human body also rises at this time. During these days, one should avoid affairs which require a considerable amount of care, delicacy and gentleness. This is a good time for cultivating since it enables one to achieve clarity.
On the day when the energy is at its lowest, calmness should be maintained. One should avoid singing, crying or other emotional outbursts. The phases of lunar energy influence the development of the brain of a newly conceived fetus. If conception occurs during a night with good moonlight, along with other normal conditions, the development of the brain of the future child will be benefited.
The moon influences the right hemisphere of the brain, whereas solar energy influences the left. The balance of the two hemispheres of the brain, the intuitive right side and the intellectual left side, is important for high development. The supporting, balancing energy from nature includes the Big Dipper, the first five planets, and the twenty-eight constellations, among others. Parents do not give birth to the soul, they only provide the physical form. The great work of giving a body to a soul for mundane development is the primary work of the lunar and solar energy phases of the daily cycle.
A good soul comes from the pure sphere of the universe on its voyage of continual evolution. When the parents have intercourse, an opportunity is created for the seed and egg to meet. Although pregnancy takes ten full moons to complete, the integration of a visiting soul comes to ride in this one particular moment of integration of paternal and maternal energies.
The aura of a couple during intercourse is what attracts the soul, and a good soul will always make the correct choice without hesitation. The variation among souls is enormous. Remember, the hexagram always expresses a development or order from the bottom up. Doubling the trigrams forms the eight symbols of the Ba Gua octahedron. When the trigrams are paired with different trigrams, the 64 hexagrams of the I Ching are formed.
In natural developed medicine, for example, they are adopted to describe the depth of a physical disease: or they can describe the development of an event such as an historical period, a war or things on a small scale. The six stages, symbolized by the six lines in a hexagram, reveal two subdivisions or big stages in an event or situation: the yang or apparent stage and the yin or hidden stage.
In this progression, the matter is transforming from a superilcial to a deeper level. It also means that the positive yang energy, is gradually weakening.
These trigrams express the increase of a negative influence. This is called a proceeding regression. A proceeding progression moves from deep trouble to a slight problem, etc. In other words, the recovery or progression follows a reverse process. However, here you will notice that two of the eight trigrams. II and :. They are not used as descriptive stages in such a situation because Eis used to govern E to 31 to 3e which expresses fire, heating or expansive change.
This is yang energy in a process of decreasing; it is moving toward becoming weaker and weaker. Regression and progression are illustrated in Figures 43 and This six stage process is used in natural medicine to describe various physical situations.
Following that, the concept of the five elementary phases developed as a way to describe the harmonizing and conflicting relationships among different energies and eventually evolved into a system for governing complex situations with simplicity.
An illustration of the five phases can be seen in Figures 3 1 and 5 1, and in the charts in my book, Tao, the Subtle Uhversal Law.
Studying this material can help tram the mind. By arranging ones own understanding, one can understand a matter or situation. The Five Element System is derived from the eight manifestations of natural energy that are described below. IThe Meaning of the Eight Symbols by Trigrams e is the full natural impetus of nature as an entirety.
It is a foundation like the Earth. E is the natural impetus to push upward, such as in vegetation, Wood, Thunder or life itself. It expresses the great vftabty of nature and the vital force contained in each individual life.
Ez is natural energy pushing forward, like the flow of Water. E is a natural impetus that has moved too Ngh. It is lfke I- a Mountain. It moves from a - - solid base. It is like Wind. Note: The words Heaven, Earth, Mountain, etc. They are metaphorical rather than literal. Misunderstanding this key point could limit ones study and use of the I Clziny. The Symbolic Trigrams for the Five Elements Thus the tri-line symbols of the five element energies become: Ie symbolizing Waler e symbolizing Fire me symbolizing Wood, which includes wind or airy m e energy.
The ancient developed ones considered stars to be condensed natural energy. Condensation is symbolized by the image of Metal. The ancient developed ones categorized Wind as the airy energy in Wood, because no lire grows without air.
It is arranged in the Ba Gua Octahedron between Wood and Fire because it cannot be represented by solid matter, like the other four elements. It is used in the process of burning Wood and is thus a necessary condition of Fire. It represents yang energy as a whole and cannot be sub-categorized as one side of the Tai Chi diagram which consists of two spheres: yang and w The Deeper Meaning of the Five Elements The trigrams represent more than what their names The energy represented by Water has the symbolize.
It is cool and liquid. It is a gathering or dispersing type of movement. It can be gentle and slow, but it can also be quick. It is not abrupt or sudden.Phases and Forces All movement. During the Cultural Revolution the Changes was initially condemned as feudal and later extolled as consistent with Marxism.
Meditation has many varieties and purposes. Wei the Tail. Is there any true authority that people can trust, totally and absolutely, for good advice in smaIl matters and great ones alike? Hellmut Wilhelm, 10 Discovering the Book of Changes - a Journey Here is a fresh, fascinating look at the Book of Changes, tracing the mythical and legendary rulers, along with the Taoist and Confucian origins within it, and considering the role of each in the making of the Book of Changes.
A larger cycle is one cycle of yet another larger cycle. In this hexagram.